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The world this series takes place in has magic deeply ingrained. Magic is typically an invisible substance, however, a few individuals like Naofumi can perceive it. Monsters are occasionally called magic beasts due to their affinity with magic. The magic beasts with the highest magic affinity are the Philorial and Dragons if event beasts like the Spirit Turtle who is capable of using unique magic skills such as supergravity magic aren't considered.
Magic is regulated by the amount of mana (MP) and the level of skill possessed by the caster. The main classes of magic are Ritual, Covenant, and that which is part of the Dragon Pulse Order, but there are also some magics that aren't part of any system and may require magic circles and/or rituals such as a "Class Up". Some individuals are capable of using magic unique to them such as event monsters, the Guardian Beasts, or many of the reincarnators.
Ritual magic is the most common type. It is able to be learned by anyone but the type is limited to that with the person has an affinity for. There is a class system for casting spells. The classes of magic include the weakest class "Faust" followed by "Tzuvait" then "Zveit", and "Dreifach". There is also "Revelation" which is a level above "Dreifach" however this level is only achievable by heroes because combines both Ritual and Choral Magic for use at the same time which requires SP. Casting spells usually includes a class of magic used as an adjective to determine it's strength as well as "Ars" to denote it uses multiple magic systems. For example "Ars Tzuvait Aquashot" is an intermediate class magic that launches orbs of high pressured water, a combination of air and water magic.
Covenant Magic, also called Synthesis Magic and Choral Magic, is magic that can be either Ritual or part of the Dragon Pulse Order that's performed by a group of individuals collaborating though chanting to create a powerful, typically large scale magic. The output directly correlates to the amount of magic gathered. Instances where covenant magic were used include the Three Heroes Church's high class synthesis magic「Judgement」(Ritual Magic where a large bolt of lightning rains down from the sky), 「Magic Sealing」, Sadina and many aquatic demi-human's「Tidal Wave」(Choral Magic in which a large wave washes away opponents), or Firo and her follower's「Sweet Song」(Choral Magic with a sleep effect.)
Dragon Pulse Order
Dragon Pulse Order is one of the extinct magics that is only known and passed down by high class monsters. It is magic that takes energy from one’s surroundings and has power proportional to the surrounding environment therefore something like holy water can be prepared before a battle to help increase the magic's power. In order to learn how to use the Dragon Pulse Order, a special blessing from a Dragon Emperor is needed for humans and Demi-Humans. In order to use the Dragon Pulse Order, one has to figure out how the created magic is formed such as calculating that Fire + Oil = blaze or inferno + water = blaze. Taniko can borrow the earth’s power and still make fire. From Earth + Darkness, she somehow solves for the Darkness, and converts that to flame. Sadina often says Saint before the magic's name for unknown reasons.
Mana (MP) and SP are separate systems. Mana is used in casting magic while SP is only possessed by heroes and is used when using weapon skills. Mana can be taken from others through the use of special items (ex. Soul Eater Shield's 「Soul Devour」 or Spirit Turtle Heart Shield' 「C Magic Snatch」) or through natural ability (ex. Firo's magic absorption stance or the white clumps of the Spirit Turtle).
Almost any item can be imbued with magic. That includes anything from weapons and armor to regular water. Magic can also be crafted with the assistance of magic resulting in higher quality products. Many "skilled" craftsmen tend to use it magic while crafting unconsciously. Every blacksmith puts an inscription, a sort of magical signature on their creations. On Cal Mira, it is considered to be a sort of obligation to inscribe them.